As a NewSpace company, 4Frontiers is focused on pursuing business opportunities in the commercial space sector. To better understand and exploit these opportunities, the company has undertaken an effort to develop economic models of the rapidly expanding space economy. These models may allow 4Frontiers to predict trends and NewSpace developments, aiding to position the company for leadership in the markets which will emerge.

The company continued its work in the field of space economics by writing a book chapter which was published by Springer in 2009. The book is titled "Mars: Prospective Energy and Materials Resources," edited by V. Badescu. The chapter (# 13) by 4Frontiers, "Economics of Energy on Mars," appears on pages 369-400. The book is available for purchase here.
Economics of Energy on Mars
by Joseph E. Palaia, IV, Mark S. Homnick, Frank Crossman, Ph.D.,
Alex Stimpson, and John Truett

4Frontiers has developed a positioning paper, which was published in World Future Review (Vol. 1, No. 2, April-May 2009), a peer-reviewed journal produced by the World Future Society.  The paper is available for download here:
by Richard Sylvan M.S., M.D., Narayanan M. Komerath, Ph.D.,
Kirk Woellert, Mark Homnick and Joseph E. Palaia, IV

4Frontiers is always looking for individuals to assist the company in further developing these models, improving our understanding of the space economy. Those interested in working with 4Frontiers to further this research please contact us at


"In my own view, the important achievement of Apollo was a demonstration that humanity is not forever chained to this planet, and our visions go rather further than that, and our opportunities are unlimited." - Neil Armstrong, press conference, 1999
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